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316L奥氏体不锈钢储罐应力腐蚀研究结论

作者:镇田机械 时间:2019-04-13 01:17
316L奥氏体不锈钢储罐应力腐蚀研究结论 本文对316L奥氏体不锈钢储罐应力腐蚀裂纹及其断口的形貌特征进行研究,并通过分析服役15年后不锈钢的显微组织及耐蚀性的变化,分析了316L奥氏体不 信息摘要:

316L奥氏体不锈钢储罐应力腐蚀研究结论

本文对316L奥氏体不锈钢储罐应力腐蚀裂纹及其断口的形貌特征进行研究,并通过分析服役15年后不锈钢的显微组织及耐蚀性的变化,分析了316L奥氏体不锈钢箱式储罐封头应力腐蚀裂纹产生的机理。

取得的主要结论如下:

(1)不锈钢储罐封头试样上的裂纹为应力腐蚀裂纹,其形貌呈树枝状,裂纹周围奥氏体晶粒没有发生明显的变形,裂纹大都垂直于焊缝方向以沿晶穿晶相混合的模式扩展,具有强烈的方向性;裂纹深度较深,在深度方向裂纹内部氧化比较严重,裂纹由小隧洞连接而成,奥氏体中的5-铁素体对裂纹的扩展有延迟作用。

(2)裂纹断口被腐蚀产物所覆盖,但仍可以观察到撕裂棱。在裂纹中部断口形貌同时具备冰糖花样和准解理面的特征,证明裂纹属于沿晶穿晶混合开裂。在裂纹扩展路径上存在Cr含量的降低及S元素的偏聚。

(3)不锈钢封头试样表面在服役期间发生了明显的点蚀和晶间腐蚀现象;此外因为在熔合区存在组织和性能的突变,在扩散氢和应力的共同作用下,在熔合区有微裂纹的萌生。这些缺陷促进了应力腐蚀开裂的发生。

(4)不锈钢储罐封头焊缝组织由柱状奥氏体和骨架状铁素体组成。316L不锈钢储罐封头母材组织由奥氏体和沿轧制方向呈条状分布的5-铁素体组成,由于在旋压制造过程中变形量大,因而硬度较高。奥氏体不锈钢储罐封头热影响区奥氏体发生了回复和再结晶作用,硬度与母材相比有所降低。

(5)不锈钢储罐封头母材在长期服役过程中,在试样表面沿铁素体/奥氏体界面、奥氏体晶界和变形带有CQ3C6、c相等富Cr相的沉淀析出,造成其周围组织中贫Cr,使其耐蚀性下降。

(6)应力腐蚀试验表明由于热影响区经历了焊接热循环的作用,有较多的富Cr相析出,服役15年后耐应力腐蚀性下降最为明显。电解浸蚀试验表明无论是母材还是热影响区,晶界的耐蚀性都未发生明显下降,储罐耐蚀性的下降主要是由沿变形带析出富Cr相而造成周围组织贫Cr引起的,其中热影响区碳化物和c相等富Cr相的析出量明显多于母材。

316L奥氏体不锈钢储罐应力腐蚀研究结论

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